|Storage buffer||10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA, 50% glycerol and less than 0.02% sodium azide.|
|Storage||Store at –20°C.|
1. Aspirate media from cultures and Wash the cells with 1X PBS. 2. Lyse cells by adding 1X SDS sample buffer and transfer the extract to a microcentrifuge tube. Keep onice. 3. Sonicate for 10–15 sec to complete cell lysis and shear DNA. 4. Heat a 20 µl sample to 95–100°C for 5 min, then cool on ice. 5. Centrifuge for 5 min (with Microcentrifuge). 6. Load appropriate volumes of samples onto SDS-PAGE gel (loading quantity of protein sample depends on the concentration of extracted proteins). NOTE: At the same time, please load the pre-stained molecular weight markers to determine molecular weights and verify electrotransfer. 7. Electrotransfer to nitrocellulose/PVDF membrane.
Membrane Blocking and Antibody Incubations
1. (Optional) After transfer, wash the transferred membrane with TBS for 5 min at room temperature. 2. Incubate the membrane in the blocking buffer for 1 hr at room temperature. 3. Wash three times for 5 min each with TBST.
b. Antibodies Incubation
1. Incubate membrane and primary antibody (at the appropriate dilution and diluent recommended) in a primary antibody dilution buffer with gentle agitation overnight at 4°C. 2. Wash three times for 5 min each with TBST. 3. Incubate membrane with an appropriate second antibodydissolved in the blocking buffer with gentle agitation for 1 hr at room temperature. 4. Wash three times for 5 min each with TBST. 5. Proceed with detection.
Detection of Proteins
1. After antibodies incubation, Wash membrane three times for 5 minutes in TBST. 2. PrepareECL Reagent (or other chromogenic agents/substrate according to your second antibody). Mix well. 3. Incubate substrate with membrane for 1 minute, remove excess solution (membrane remains wet), wrap in plastic and expose to X-ray film.
|Specificity||PKR Rabbit Recombinant mAb detects endogenous level of total PKR.|
|Background||The protein kinase R (PKR), a ubiquitously expressed serine-threonine kinase, is an intracellular sensor of stress, exemplified by viral infection. Double-stranded (ds) RNA produced during viral replication activates PKR, which in turn arrests protein synthesis by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2. In addition to its translational regulatory function, PKR has a role in signal transduction and transcriptional control through the I B/NF-κB pathway. PKR, which is expressed constitutively in mammalian cells, has also been implicated in the control of cell growth and proliferation with tumor suppressor function. Expression of PKR varies in a timeand tissue-specific manner during human fetal development; levels are imperceptible in blastema and immature mesenchymal cells but high in a variety of more differentiated tissues such as epithelial cells. In adult tissues, PKR levels are low in the proliferating immature zone of squamous mucosa and increase progressively in the nonproliferating mature keratinocytes.|